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I. Miscellaneous-1

II. Article (Paper)

III. Miscellaneous-2

Indonesian Radio/TV Station

IV. Miscellaneous-3

Pirate Radio kits FM Transmitter schematic hobby broadcast RF Circuit Antenna Surveillance spy
Links for FM Transmitter Kits, Circuits, Electronics ...

Schematics of Transmitters, Oscillators, RF Amplifiers :

Voyager Radio : Somebody just copied Pulsar's site without any credits. Useful if Pulsar's Server goes down.
Hans : Another great place for schematics, similar to Pulsar site. Hans is a helpful guy who answers e-mails.
Crystal HF : Yet another nice place for schematics. Looks like Dutch Pirates are the most technical lot !!
Schematics of Commercial Kits like Veronica, Panaxis, Ramsey, B'Warehouse...
Twilight's Schema's : Copies of SPI Kit's PLL, Stereo Coder, Limiter
Harry's Homebrew : Many circuits, incl VHF Freq Tripler TX, useful info especially on winding coils
Mycal 1 & 2: Seems to know his technical stuff. It appears he corrects design flaws in Ramsey's transmitters
Technology page at Free Radio Berkeley : Some things never change, this page is one of them !
Transmitter Schematics at FRN : Good collection of other people's designs
Radioelektronicke Obvody : I knew there are some Checz Maniacs around !!
Low Power FM Broadcasting : By Dillon. FM Transmitters, J Pole design
Smart Electronics 15 W FM Transmitter PDF
Justin's Transmitter Schematics : 3-18W transmitters, Antenna, RF Amplifiers
Lar's Transmitters for the 3mtr band : Similar to Justin's site, 0.5W-25W Transmitter schematics
FM-Pirat : Similar to Justin's and Lar's site. 15W BLY88 based FM Transmitter with PCB and building instructions
YAFWT : Yet Another Fifteen Watt Transmitter based on BLY88. Easy to understand write-up, PCB designs.
Japanese Transmitter : Can transmit in English too !! Should be good for about 4-7 watts ?
AMN : See how this "professional station" does it. They claim "Broadcast Quality" circuits and Antenna
Fantasy Radio : See the Schematics of the equipment used by this Dutch FM Pirate Radio Station
WARNING : Any free running VFO transmitter with less than 4 Transistors for 50-100mW output or 5 transistors at 2-5W output (ie no buffer stages, no voltage regulator for VFO) is probably highly unstable and it's frequency of operation will keep on changing with time, temperature, battery levels, antenna type, proximity of other objects to transmitter. Please build the following transmitter circuits with this warning in mind. See my review of FM Bugs for more info.
200mW 2 Km Transmitter circuit and Manual : From RCL in India
Four Transistor Transmitter
The Electronics page : Some simple FM Transmitters
Dan Evans builds the Velleman 3 Transistor FM Oscillator Kit
3 transistor FM Bug : By Harry Lythall sm0vpo
Andy's cicruits : Wide Band 3 Transi and Narrow Band Xtal controlled Transmitters
2 Transistor FM Bug : PDF format file with circuit dia and good write up on operation
2 Transistor Colpitts Oscillator
Mini Oscillator and 2W Oscillator : By Kemo Kits of Germany
NoiseMantra : Based on the MicroCircuits VCO module. Better use the POS150 !!!
broadcastfm : New site started 04th April 99. Promises lots of schematics and technical stuff
One transistor FM Bug : How simple can it get ? You gotta make atleast this one work !!

Forrest Cook & Daniel Sill's Improved Stereo Modulator
SPI's Stereo Coder

Schematics of commercial CB Kits

Marconi's views on RF Schematics available on the Web : At Radio Frequencies, the PCB Design is part of the overall circuit design !!. If you find a schematic of anything over 5W at 108 MHz (or 10mW at 400 MHz) with no PCB details, just forget it !!!

Antenna, Antennae, Aerials, Rubber Duckies, J-Poles, Dipoles :
Basics of Antenna : By Linx Technologies (PDF), quick way to understand the raw basics.
The Antenna Elmer : Everything you wanted to know about Antenna. GOOD SITE
The PacketRadio Op's Antenna Handbook : Tools to design J Pole, Dipole, Quads
How to be an Antenna Guru
Antenna Practical Design : from the University of Murray, Down Under
J-Pole Antenna Design : by Mycal
J-Pole Antenna for 89 MHz : By G. Forrest Cook
Ribbon J Pole from 300 Ohm TV Cable : By Gavin Reibelt VK4ZZ
Construction of a JPole for 2m : By W. Kinsner, VE4WK
Copper Cactus Antenna : Multiple J Poles for different frequencies using the same mast
From a J to a Zepp : Excellent technical discussion on the J Pole Antenna.
Slim Jim for 3 mtr : From the FM10 Archives
Albert's 3 mtr Slim Jim
Slim Jim for 3 mtr : By Marconi, good diagrams
Slim Jim for 2 mtr : By Nadisha
Slim Jim for 2 mtr : Excellent diagram with construction details
Double Slim Jim colinear with 3dB gain over dipole : By Fred JUDD G2BCX, the inventor of the Slim Jim
6dB Colinear VHF Antenna : by sm0vpo

Technical Knowledge and FAQ on RF, Pirate Radio :
How to be a Radio Pirate : A Good Technical Introduction for Newbies based on "Radio is my Bomb"
Ramsey FM10 FAQ and FM25 FAQ : By Mycal himself
Technical Guide to Radio : Another FM10 FAQ
Ramsey FM10 FAQ : Courtesy FIL
Ramsey FM10 FAQ Part II : A page from the FIL o' FAQs
Pirate Radio and TV Broadcasting Techniques : Info on Ramsey FMs, Antenna, Filters ...
(Caveat : Just because a kit is often spoken about does not mean that it is technically any good. Please read kit reviews before any purchase decisions. Use above FAQs to glean basic info on Transmitter technology only)
Beginners Guide to LPFM : FAQ of the newsgroup
Low Power Broadcasting FAQ : From newsgroup
Microbroadcasting - A technical Primer : By Stephen Dunifer himself. Actually not so technical, but interesting.
FM Radio communication principles : From the University of Newcastle, Down Under
Designing a 2 Transistor FM Transmitter : Francis Mc Swiggan's dissertation for his BEng course
What is a PLL ? : BIASCOMM's pithy and concise reply to a question on my mailing list
Beginners Guide to Low Power Broadcasting : By Rick Harrison
Theory of AM, FM and FM Stereo : Basic technology explained by Steve J. Quest
Basics of Frequency Modulation : As explained by the United States Naval Academy !!!
Introduction to FM MPX : Basics of multiplexing FM Stereo signals
Structure of an FM MPX Signal : By Aztec Radio
Scott's guide to Stereo FM
Stereo for Dummies : My own look at Stereo, liberally SPICEd with waveform screen dumps. 24 Sept 1999
Scott's Guide to Broadcasting
Introduction to Telecommunications : Technical discourse on differrent modulation methods
Radio Data System ( RDS) : University of Newcastle, Australia
ARRL : Needs no introduction, I suppose
Effects of VSWR on radiated power : Might as well transmit what you are producing
Wenzel discusses SWR, Return loss and Reflection Coefficients
How far will my signal go ? : more info here and here
Technical Papers on FM Broadcasting : From Broadcast Electronics
Radio Papers Repository :'s large store of technical papers on Radio
How to optimise the Air Chain : From Orban
Technical Papers : From "Modulation Index", re Modulation and Loudness
Articles from RF Design Online
Application Notes : Mini-circuits explain VCOs, PLLs, Phase Noise, Test equipment and methods
Noise reduction in FM Transmitters :
FM Composite Signal Processing for FM Transmitters : By MicroCon Systems Inc.
Use your computer to feed Audio to the transmitter : Yaesutom explains the newer software available
UK Frequency Allocation tables : By the Radiocommunications Agency , London
ETSI : The European Telecommunications Standards Institute

Ham Info :
There is no denying that the Ham and Amateur community has done a lot in discovering / spreading technical information about broadcasting. The free atmosphere they had to play around in certain frequency bands fostered experimentation in VFO, Transmitters, Antenna. It also created a culture of sharing of knowledge, with many Elmers ready to assist the novices. Unfortunately , regulatory control in the 88-108 MHz band has dampened the spirit of innovation and also commercialised it. Much less free technical information is available on the Net about issues affecting the 88-108 MHz band, like propogation conditions, Antenna designs, Circuit designs, Stereo broadcasting. I am forever dipping into Ham files to see how they did things, and trying to scale it into the 3mtr band. Here then are my favourite Ham links that I would like to share with you. They reflect my current interest in Oscillators, Antenna and Xtal controlled bugs for the FM Band.

QRP Homebuider VFO Page : FET based Hartley and Clapp Oscillators
JF1FCJ's Super VXO Oscillator and experiments : Use two crystals to get larger deviations. Peter's version
Wide Range VXO : From SPRAT
Japanese Homebrew Guru JF1OZL : Wow, is this guy a diehard experimenter or what !!

Transistor Specifications :
Surface Mount Transistor FAQ : Good source re Transistor equivalents
Siemens RF Transistors : Detailed specs of Transistors, visit "search" button. GOOD SITE !!!
Transistor Spec Sheets
Low Noise Transistors : Transistor specifications
Transistor Cross Reference Database : Helps you find transistor equivalents from database of 40,000 Transistors
Pacific Semiconductor Inc. Search Page : Find out prices and very basic specs of Transistors
Military Preferred Products List : Transistor Specifications
NTE's database : Type in a generic number, get a NTE number, plug that in datasheet page to get the specs.
Transistor Specs in PDF : From the Fairchild site
Motorola data library : Lots of transistor specs in PDF
Mitsubishi RF Transistor specs : Home of the 2SC1971. Prices at RF Parts
Defpom's cross-reference and RF Transi cross-ref chart
Farnell's Database : 9500 PDFs !!

Electronics 101 :
Introduction to Electronics : The basics. Read first if you are a completely lost newbie
First Active Electronics : The very basics. Say something on the News Group only after reading this !!
Circuit Exchange : Nice site with basic Theory of Transmitters
Electronics Analysis and Design Labs : By Neil Goldsman, University of Maryland
Electric Circuits Laboratory : Duke University
Electrical Physics and Electronics : Course 9E103 at the University of Queensland, Australia
How to Bias a Bipolar Junction Transistor
Biasing RF Power Amp stages
High Frequency performance of a BJT Common-Emitter stage
Basic equations for BJTs : By Francis
How to design a FET stage
More on FETs : By Francis
What is a Varactor ? : Zetex PDF explains Variable Capacitance Diodes ( Varicaps)
How to calculate vaules of Air Coils : By sm0vpo
Air Coils for VHF and UHF
Air Core Coils Calculator
Design Software for Helical Air Coils : By Saratoga Software
Calculator for basic RF Calculations : By sm0vpo
Confused about dB, dBi and dBd ?
More about the dB
Impedance Matching Network Designer
Tuned Circuit Formulae
Designing T Attenuation Pads : By Linx Technologies (PDF)
Know of a good page on Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design techniques ?, Please inform me !

Electronics 501 :
Analysis of a Colpitts Oscillator
SPICE Analysis of a Colpitts Oscillator
SPICE Analyis of a 2N2222 based Colpitts Oscillator : By Dennis Erwin Thurlow
Using SPICE for RF Oscillator and Class C RF Amps : INTUSOFT suggests Sub-circuits are better than Models at RF
Micro-cap's Demo/Evaluation copy of SPICE : I didn't sleep the night I downloaded this !!!
How do I SPICE up my life for free ?
Hamcalc, RFtoolbx, Stub Tuning and other RF Software
Richard the Lion Heart designs a PLL
Japanese Hobbyist designs a Phase Rocked Roop : Lecommended leading !!
FREE DESIGN SOFTWARE AT RF GLOBALNET : Wow, Excellent design tools !!
PHILIPS RF APPLICATION NOTES : Lots of good stuff, Incl. a 250W and a 300W FM RF Amp
MOTOROLA RF APPLICATION NOTES : Lots of good stuff here by Application

Links to links :
Free Radio Network : You have gotta visit this site, many links to other great places !
Bry's Pirate Radio Links : A huge selection of links
Links to pages with Electronic Schematics
ePanorama's links to pages with Schematics
Radio links : Lottsa links, so little time
Kenneke's Links : More radio related links. Hit a page down to see them.
FIL's Links
Links to Data Sheets of Electronic Parts Manufacturers, also here
Berry's links : If you follow enough links, chances are you will land back on my page
Dealer Links : Where can I buy a thingamabob ??????
Parts, Kits and Stuff : Bunch of links for Ham kits, but could be useful for parts for FM band as well
Links page of Amazon Electronics : Links to Manufacturers, Hobbyists, Technology, FAQs
Leroy was here !!! : Excellent site with links to Electronic reference books, Parts distributors, Manufacturers ...
OCARC Ham Radio Supplier List
Pirate Radio at The Mining Company
AC6V's Links to Homebrew Antenna sites : Mostly Ham Antenna, but lots to learn !!
Ham Radio and Electronic Kits : Also by AC6V
Free Radio Stations : By Chris Smolinski
Broadcast Related Links : From the Society of Broadcast Engineers
Lara's Theme : I dont want to be associated with any link list that would want to be associated with me !!
Thailand Electronics Links : Tom Yum Chip ?
Electronics FAQ links
Infoseek > Entertainment > Radio > Technical Issues
Yahoo > News and Media > Radio > Pirate Radio
The Official Pirate Radio Kit Bulletin Board : Lots of links + a Bulletin Board to discuss TX Kits + a Technical list
FCC on microbroadcasting : Everythink I like in life can either put me in prison, make me fat or give me AIDS : The newsgroup to be seen at, via the Deja News service

Those Link above are originally captured from: ,

Thanks very much to